Network Digital Twins for Cyber

Cyber Analysis Bundle

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SCALABLE’s network digital twin cyber solutions are used by our customers to assess the resiliency of networked communication environments to diverse cyber threats and to enable system lifecycle management and operator training. Our cyber security tools allow the customer to explore and analyze live early-stage device designs, application code response, and overall communications effectiveness. This is done in a highly realistic synthetic network at real-time speed to provide a complete cyber security defense solution. In addition, we offer you the ability to evaluate your network design, assess your information security, and prepare a cyber threat assessment on its resiliency.

When creating an accurate network digital twin of the physical network, several components are required, including network model libraries. Similar to how a blend of hardware and software helps construct live networks, a variety of network protocols, equipment, radio waveforms, and other elements combine to create network digital twins. Network model libraries include communications systems model libraries, which feature various definitions of network protocols and communications equipment waveforms. SCALABLE developed a cyber analysis bundle with specific network model libraries to support customers looking to model and analyze the cyber resiliency of their networks.

Cyber Security Tools enables users to:

  • Optimize the network, systems, and applications performance and the physical structure to mitigate risks
  • Identify issues, bottlenecks, and failure modes before they impact users
  • Create best practices to increase systems availability and lower operational risks
  • Quantify potential business or mission impacts due to cyber attacks and the resulting network disruptions
  • Replicate specific environments in a lab and quickly evaluate “what if” scenarios to determine what happens to physical systems if they are subject to cyber attacks

Cyber Analysis Bundle

The Cyber Analysis Bundle includes the following model libraries:

Developer Library

The Developer Library includes a very long list of standard communications protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

MAC Layer

  • 802.3 LAN/Ethernet
  • Abstract Link MAC
  • Abstract Satellite Model
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Logical Link Control (LLC) Protocol

Network Layer

  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Fixed Communications Model
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  • Internet Protocol – Dual IP
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
  • IPv6 Autoconfiguration Model
  • Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Bellman-Ford Routing Protocol
  • Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng)
  • Routing Information Protocol/Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP/RIPv2)
  • Static and Default Routes

Multicast Routing

  • Static Multicast Routes

Queues and Schedulers

  • First-In First-Out (FIFO) Queue
  • Random Early Detection (RED) Queue
  • Random Early Detection with In/Out (RIO) Queue
  • Round Robin Scheduler
  • Self-Clocked Fair Queueing (SCFQ) Scheduler
  • Strict Priority Scheduler
  • Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Scheduler
  • Weighted RED (WRED) Queue
  • Weighted Round Robin (WRR) Scheduler

Transport Layer

  • Abstract Transmission Control Protocol (Abstract TCP)
  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Application Layer

  • Background Traffic Model
  • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Traffic Generator
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol/Generic (FTP/Generic)
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Lookup Traffic Generator
  • Multicast Constant Bit Rate (MCBR) Traffic Generator
  • Super Application Traffic Generator
  • Telecommunications Network (TELNET)
  • Traffic Generator (Traffic-Gen)
  • Trace File-based Traffic Generator (Traffic-Trace)
  • Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Traffic Generator


  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Vendor Interfaces

  • AGI System Toolkit (STK) Interface


  • Faults
  • File-based Node Placement Model
  • Grid Node Placement Model
  • Random Node Placement Model
  • Uniform Node Placement Model

Federation Interfaces Library

The Federation Interfaces Library can be incorporated into QualNet and EXata models, adding support for multi-simulator integration.

Multiple simulators can be used to simulate different aspects of the same scenario. The results of such a co-operative simulation can be more realistic and meaningful than those obtained by using any single simulator. The simulators interoperate with each other via data sharing to achieve a consistent representation of the simulation environment. Several standards, such as Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA), have been developed to facilitate data sharing among simulators.

High Level Architecture

High Level Architecture (HLA) is a specification that enables two or more software programs (usually simulation software) to interoperate. The software programs communicate with each other through a Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) module, which implements the HLA interface specification.

Distributed Interactive Simulation

Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) is an IEEE standard for interfacing multiple simulation tools into a single, real-time simulation. The transport of information between simulators is performed using UDP and broadcast and/or multicast IP. Although superseded by HLA and IEEE 1516, DIS still remains popular for its simplicity of operation and the ease of creating a DIS interface. In HLA terminology, the collection of communicating simulations is called a federation and each simulation is called a federate. The object and interaction classes used in the federation are defined in a module called Federation Object Model (FOM). Information is exchanged between simulations using this FOM.

Socket Interface

Communication between a SCALABLE application and the external program is implemented over a TCP socket, with the SCALABLE application acting as the server and the external program as the client. Several types of messages can be sent between the two processes.

Multimedia & Enterprise Library

The Multimedia and Enterprise Library covers an array of protocol and equipment elements.

The library supports:

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • Detailed Switch Model
  • Switched Ethernet
  • Virtual LAN (VLAN)

Network Protocols

  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Model
  • Layer 3 Switch Mode
  • Mobile IPv4

Unicast Routing

  • Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGPv4)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  • Open Shortest Path First version 2 (OSPFv2) Routing Protocol
  • Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3) Routing Protocol

Multicast Routing

  • Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
  • Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF)
  • Protocol Independent Multicast Protocol: Dense Mode (PIM-DM) and Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
  • Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Router Configuration

  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Policy-based Routing Protocol (PBR)
  • Route Map
  • Route Redistribution
  • Router Access List
  • Router Model

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Quality of Service Extensions to OSPF (QOSPF)

Multimedia Applications

  • H323 and H225 Protocols
  • Real-time Transfer Protocols
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Wireless Library

The standard Wireless Library includes many typical wireless protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:


  • Airplane Pathloss Model (New)
  • Constant Shadowing Model
  • Fast Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Free-space Pathloss Model
  • Inter-channel Interference Model
  • Irregular Terrain Model (ITM)
  • Lognormal Shadowing Model
  • Millimeter Wave Pathloss Model (New)
  • Pathloss Matrix Model
  • Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Ricean Fading Model
  • Two-ray Pathloss Model

Physical (PHY) Layer

  • 802.11p PHY Model
  • 802.11a/g PHY Model
  • 802.11b PHY Model
  • 802.11n PHY Model
  • 802.11ac PHY Model
  • 802.11ax PHY Model
  • Abstract PHY Model
  • Antenna Models
  • Bit Error Rate-based (BER) Reception Model
  • Bluetooth PHY Model (New)
  • Radio Energy Models
  • SNR-based Reception Model

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • 802.11 MAC Protocol
  • 802.11p MAC Protocol
  • 802.11e MAC Protocol
  • 802.11n MAC Protocol
  • 802.11ac MAC Model
  • 802.11ax MAC Protocol
  • 802.11s MAC Protocol
  • Aloha MAC Protocol
  • Abstract Network Equation – Satellite (ANESAT) Model
  • Bluetooth Classic MAC Protocol (New)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy MAC Protocol (New)
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) MAC Protocol
  • Generic MAC Protocol
  • Microwave Links
  • Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) MAC Protocol
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) MAC Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
  • Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)
  • Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Protocol
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
  • Fisheye State Routing Protocol
  • Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP)
  • Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP)
  • Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) Protocol
  • Location-Aided Routing (LAR) Protocol
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol – INRIA (OLSR-INRIA)
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2)
  • Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) Protocol
  • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

Application Layer

  • Bluetooth Advertiser Application Model (New)
  • Bluetooth Application Model (New)

Multicast Routing

  • On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP)


  • File-based Mobility Model
  • Group Node Placement and Mobility Models
  • Random Waypoint Mobility Model


  • Cartesian Terrain Format
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Terrain Format
  • Digital Terrain Elevation (DTED) Terrain Format
  • ESRI Shapefile Terrain Format
  • Urban Terrain Data Format


  • Battery Models
  • Weather Pattern Model

Related Resources

Cyber Security Solutions for Critical Infrastructure

Network operators must determine how resilient their communications fabric is to cyber attack and to develop plans to mitigate the associated risks.

CEO Spotlight: Securing Cyber-Physical Systems

The Cyber Library for EXata enables you to gain unique visibility into how a network and the applications that use it will respond during a cyber attack.

Defending Power Grids from Cyber Attack – Learning from the Ukraine Attack

Taking a close look at one of the most important cyber attacks of the past decade offers unique insight concerning the ways that training, mitigation, and prevention can be boosted by employing the right analysis platform.

EXata For Cyber Physical Systems - Technical Details

This integration of EXata CPS and HYPERSIM provides a means to test the resilience of power systems to cyber attacks and improve their cyber defenses, thereby helping to ensure cybersecurity, reliability, and efficiency of such systems.

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Co-simulation Testbed Developed with OPAL-RT Technologies

Learn the benefits of co-simulation for development, testing, and assessment of electrical grids with communication networks.

Ukraine Power Grid Attack - A Case Study on the Use of Network Digital Twins for Assessing Cyber Resilience

To prepare for the inevitable future cyber attacks, it is essential to understand and thoroughly analyze how cyber attackers can infiltrate the system, even those employing robust defense-in-depth strategies.

Automated Creation of Network Digital Twins

Digital Twins can be used for analysis which can provide insights and actionable information to improve the process or product in terms of optimized performance, cost-effectiveness, readiness, or maintenance.

Key Features of EXata

Real Time Emulator

Seamlessly interface with other live equipment and applications

Cyber Testing

Test the resiliency of your network to Cyber Attacks

Network Digital Twin

Test your network in a low-cost, zero-risk environment


Model thousands of nodes with parallel execution

Model Fidelity

Models simulate accurate real-world behavior

Commercial enterprises, educational institutions, and governmental organizations around the world all depend on reliable, effective networks to deliver business-critical, mission-critical communications, and information. SCALABLE maintains a highly experienced group of technical professionals to support customers and projects of any scale and solve challenging problems with our advanced network digital twin technology.

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