Network Digital Twins for Analysis

Bundles to Support Enterprise, Autonomous Technology, and Critical Infrastructure

SCALABLE provides unique network digital twin solutions to commercial enterprises, government and defense agencies, research organizations, and educational institutions around the world. The software enables customers to analyze and predict the network performance of communication technologies prior to deployment. Network digital twins offer organizations a solution to predict how the networked enterprise, or at least the critical sub-systems, will behave when under cyber attack. To assure that cyber resilience is not a one-time effort, IT managers and network planners must continuously assess their current network’s vulnerabilities to known and emerging threats and proactively update their strategies.

Safely Relying on Digital Twin Technology

Cyber-Physical Systems: SCALABLE is leveraging its experience in network and cyber emulation technologies to model cyber-physical systems (CPS) systems, people, and processes to evaluate their cyber resiliency.  SNT’s technologies “mimic” the functions of a real CPS network so that the model appears, interacts, and behaves like the real CPS network. The emulator provides an exact, high quality, reproduction of external behavior so that the emulated system is indistinguishable from the real system and can serve as a lab based system integration, analysis, and test tool. It includes the capabilities to collect, report, and visualize a comprehensive set of statistical data that can be used to derive appropriate Measures of Performance (MOPs) from the emulated network under various operating conditions, including when exposed to cyber-physical threats.

Autonomous Vehicles: One way our network digital twin modeling and simulation tools are used throughout the world is to make vehicles safer. They provide a powerful capability for simulation of networks that incorporate a diverse variety of environmental, protocol, mobility, and network traffic configurations for urban environments, vehicle mobility, fading, shadowing, path loss and interference, 802.11p, LTE, and 5G. Digital twin technology lowers development costs by drastically reducing time to test wireless network performance, reliability, and security under varying environmental conditions, including urban environments with thousands of moving vehicles.

LTE/5G: Creating network digital twins of 5G mobile networks will enable effective proficiency training, cyber situational awareness, network analysis, and mission rehearsal exercise support for cyber-physical activities. They will also accurately represent and be interoperable with the new frequencies available with 5G (e.g.,mmWave and cmWave) Access Points (AP), smart buildings and homes, mobile-to-mobile, telematics, and sensor networks. As industry leaders in network digital twin technology, SCALABLE developed an accurate 5G model library to help evaluate the performance and behavior of 5G cellular networks. Our modeling and analysis tools give our customers the competitive edge to understand operational and business challenges across the 5G lifecycle.

Enterprise Systems:  Enterprise networks are increasing in complexity, deploying new and legacy systems and applications and, increasingly, cloud-based solutions. To ensure that the network continues to provide services even when under cyber attack, it is critical to understand how it behaves under different types of cyber attacks and to pro-actively prepare counter-measures. Network simulation using a network digital twin offers a zero-risk, low cost alternative for studying network behavior under a comprehensive set of cyber attacks.

Network Digital Twins to Support Enterprise, Autonomous Technology, and Critical Infrastructure

Predict how critical communication networks will behave when under cyber attack and continuously assess network vulnerabilities from emerging threats in a cost-effective, and low-risk manner.

Network Analysis for Enterprise Bundle

The Network Analysis for Enterprise Bundle includes the following model libraries:

Developer Library

The Developer Library includes a very long list of standard communications protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

MAC Layer

  • 802.3 LAN/Ethernet
  • Abstract Link MAC
  • Abstract Satellite Model
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Logical Link Control (LLC) Protocol

Network Layer

  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Fixed Communications Model
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  • Internet Protocol – Dual IP
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
  • IPv6 Autoconfiguration Model
  • Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Bellman-Ford Routing Protocol
  • Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng)
  • Routing Information Protocol/Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP/RIPv2)
  • Static and Default Routes

Multicast Routing

  • Static Multicast Routes

Queues and Schedulers

  • First-In First-Out (FIFO) Queue
  • Random Early Detection (RED) Queue
  • Random Early Detection with In/Out (RIO) Queue
  • Round Robin Scheduler
  • Self-Clocked Fair Queueing (SCFQ) Scheduler
  • Strict Priority Scheduler
  • Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Scheduler
  • Weighted RED (WRED) Queue
  • Weighted Round Robin (WRR) Scheduler

Transport Layer

  • Abstract Transmission Control Protocol (Abstract TCP)
  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Application Layer

  • Background Traffic Model
  • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Traffic Generator
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol/Generic (FTP/Generic)
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Lookup Traffic Generator
  • Multicast Constant Bit Rate (MCBR) Traffic Generator
  • Super Application Traffic Generator
  • Telecommunications Network (TELNET)
  • Traffic Generator (Traffic-Gen)
  • Trace File-based Traffic Generator (Traffic-Trace)
  • Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Traffic Generator

Multi-Layer

  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Vendor Interfaces

  • AGI System Toolkit (STK) Interface

Miscellaneous

  • Faults
  • File-based Node Placement Model
  • Grid Node Placement Model
  • Random Node Placement Model
  • Uniform Node Placement Model

Multimedia & Enterprise Library

The Multimedia and Enterprise Library covers an array of protocol and equipment elements.

The library supports:

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • Detailed Switch Model
  • Switched Ethernet
  • Virtual LAN (VLAN)

Network Protocols

  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Model
  • Layer 3 Switch Mode
  • Mobile IPv4

Unicast Routing

  • Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGPv4)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  • Open Shortest Path First version 2 (OSPFv2) Routing Protocol
  • Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3) Routing Protocol

Multicast Routing

  • Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
  • Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF)
  • Protocol Independent Multicast Protocol: Dense Mode (PIM-DM) and Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
  • Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Router Configuration

  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Policy-based Routing Protocol (PBR)
  • Route Map
  • Route Redistribution
  • Router Access List
  • Router Model

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Quality of Service Extensions to OSPF (QOSPF)

Multimedia Applications

  • H323 and H225 Protocols
  • Real-time Transfer Protocols
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Wireless Library

The standard Wireless Library includes many typical wireless protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

Propagation

  • Airplane Pathloss Model (New)
  • Constant Shadowing Model
  • Fast Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Free-space Pathloss Model
  • Inter-channel Interference Model
  • Irregular Terrain Model (ITM)
  • Lognormal Shadowing Model
  • Millimeter Wave Pathloss Model (New)
  • Pathloss Matrix Model
  • Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Ricean Fading Model
  • Two-ray Pathloss Model

Physical (PHY) Layer

  • 802.11p PHY Model
  • 802.11a/g PHY Model
  • 802.11b PHY Model
  • 802.11n PHY Model
  • 802.11ac PHY Model
  • 802.11ax PHY Model
  • Abstract PHY Model
  • Antenna Models
  • Bit Error Rate-based (BER) Reception Model
  • Bluetooth PHY Model (New)
  • Radio Energy Models
  • SNR-based Reception Model

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • 802.11 MAC Protocol
  • 802.11p MAC Protocol
  • 802.11e MAC Protocol
  • 802.11n MAC Protocol
  • 802.11ac MAC Model
  • 802.11ax MAC Protocol
  • 802.11s MAC Protocol
  • Aloha MAC Protocol
  • Abstract Network Equation – Satellite (ANESAT) Model
  • Bluetooth Classic MAC Protocol (New)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy MAC Protocol (New)
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) MAC Protocol
  • Generic MAC Protocol
  • Microwave Links
  • Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) MAC Protocol
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) MAC Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
  • Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)
  • Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Protocol
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
  • Fisheye State Routing Protocol
  • Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP)
  • Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP)
  • Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) Protocol
  • Location-Aided Routing (LAR) Protocol
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol – INRIA (OLSR-INRIA)
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2)
  • Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) Protocol
  • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

Application Layer

  • Bluetooth Advertiser Application Model (New)
  • Bluetooth Application Model (New)

Multicast Routing

  • On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP)

Mobility

  • File-based Mobility Model
  • Group Node Placement and Mobility Models
  • Random Waypoint Mobility Model

Terrain

  • Cartesian Terrain Format
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Terrain Format
  • Digital Terrain Elevation (DTED) Terrain Format
  • ESRI Shapefile Terrain Format
  • Urban Terrain Data Format

Miscellaneous

  • Battery Models
  • Weather Pattern Model

Network Analysis for LTE/5G Bundle

The Network Analysis for LTE/5G Bundle includes the following model libraries:

Developer Library

The Developer Library includes a very long list of standard communications protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

MAC Layer

  • 802.3 LAN/Ethernet
  • Abstract Link MAC
  • Abstract Satellite Model
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Logical Link Control (LLC) Protocol

Network Layer

  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Fixed Communications Model
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  • Internet Protocol – Dual IP
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
  • IPv6 Autoconfiguration Model
  • Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Bellman-Ford Routing Protocol
  • Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng)
  • Routing Information Protocol/Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP/RIPv2)
  • Static and Default Routes

Multicast Routing

  • Static Multicast Routes

Queues and Schedulers

  • First-In First-Out (FIFO) Queue
  • Random Early Detection (RED) Queue
  • Random Early Detection with In/Out (RIO) Queue
  • Round Robin Scheduler
  • Self-Clocked Fair Queueing (SCFQ) Scheduler
  • Strict Priority Scheduler
  • Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Scheduler
  • Weighted RED (WRED) Queue
  • Weighted Round Robin (WRR) Scheduler

Transport Layer

  • Abstract Transmission Control Protocol (Abstract TCP)
  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Application Layer

  • Background Traffic Model
  • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Traffic Generator
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol/Generic (FTP/Generic)
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Lookup Traffic Generator
  • Multicast Constant Bit Rate (MCBR) Traffic Generator
  • Super Application Traffic Generator
  • Telecommunications Network (TELNET)
  • Traffic Generator (Traffic-Gen)
  • Trace File-based Traffic Generator (Traffic-Trace)
  • Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Traffic Generator

Multi-Layer

  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Vendor Interfaces

  • AGI System Toolkit (STK) Interface

Miscellaneous

  • Faults
  • File-based Node Placement Model
  • Grid Node Placement Model
  • Random Node Placement Model
  • Uniform Node Placement Model

Multimedia & Enterprise Library

The Multimedia and Enterprise Library covers an array of protocol and equipment elements.

The library supports:

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • Detailed Switch Model
  • Switched Ethernet
  • Virtual LAN (VLAN)

Network Protocols

  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Model
  • Layer 3 Switch Mode
  • Mobile IPv4

Unicast Routing

  • Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGPv4)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  • Open Shortest Path First version 2 (OSPFv2) Routing Protocol
  • Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3) Routing Protocol

Multicast Routing

  • Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
  • Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF)
  • Protocol Independent Multicast Protocol: Dense Mode (PIM-DM) and Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
  • Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Router Configuration

  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Policy-based Routing Protocol (PBR)
  • Route Map
  • Route Redistribution
  • Router Access List
  • Router Model

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Quality of Service Extensions to OSPF (QOSPF)

Multimedia Applications

  • H323 and H225 Protocols
  • Real-time Transfer Protocols
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

5G Library

The 5G Library can be incorporated into QualNet, EXata, and NDT models, adding support for 5G-based communications.

5G is the 5th generation mobile network. It is a new global wireless standard after 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks that provides higher data speeds, ultra low latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and a more uniform user experience. 5G will be able to support all communication needs from low power Local Area Network (LAN) to Wide Area Networks (WAN), with the right latency/speed settings. The non-standalone (NSA) mode of 5G depends on the control plane of an existing 4G LTE network for control functions, while 5G is exclusively focused on the user plane. The standalone (SA) mode of 5G uses 5G cells for both signaling and information transfer. It includes the new 5G Packet Core architecture instead of relying on the 4G Evolved Packet Core, to allow the deployment of 5G without the LTE network.

The SCALABLE 5G Library is based on the 3GPP Release 15. The main features of the 5G models are:

  • Two deployment options: Option 3 (Non-standalone mode) and Option 2 (Standalone mode)
  • Two execution modes: High fidelity and high performance
  • 5G Core entities like AMF, SMF etc.
  • 5G Ran entities like 5G NodeB etc.
  • OFDMA/SC-FDMA PHY
  • FDD and TDD modes
  • FR1 and FR2 frequency band
  • Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)
  • Carrier Aggregation of upto 16 carriers in DL and UL
  • Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
  • Millimeter Wave (MMW) propagation
  • Beamforming
  • Handover

Cellular Library

The Cellular Library can be incorporated into QualNet, EXata and NDT models, adding support for GSM communications.

In the Abstract Cellular Model, a single base station serves a circular service area that is divided into multiple sectors, each of which is allocated with a certain amount of bandwidth. For each base station, several control channels are defined. A large number of base stations cover the simulated area and they are connected to a hub, the switch center, with wired links. The hub routes the control and data messages to/from the base stations. An aggregated node emulates the services originated or destined to nodes outside the simulated area. A gateway connects to all the BSs and the aggregated node. With help from HLR, the gateway routes the information flows between MSs or between MS and the aggregated node.

The GSM model in QualNet models the behavior of Mobile Stations (MSs), Base Stations (BSs), and Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs), and the “Um” (BS-to-MS) and “A” (BS-to-MSC) interfaces. The MSs can be located anywhere and can be mobile. The BSs and MSC are stationary. The GSM model allows multiple MSs, multiple BSs, and a single MSC in any scenario. Each BS is connected to the MSC by a wired point-to-point link.

Implemented Features

  • Configuration of MSC, multiple Base Stations, and multiple Mobile Stations
  • Standard band is supported (900 MHz Mobile Stations and Base Stations)
  • Cell selection and re-selection
  • Dynamic channel assignment and release
  • Location update
  • Call setup and tear-down
  • Handover (intra-MSC and inter-cell/Base Station)

Urban Propagation Library

The Urban Propagation Library can be incorporated into QualNet, EXata and NDT models.

The library supports propagation models for:

  • Automatic Model Selection
  • COST 231-Hata
  • COST 231-Walfish-Ikegami (COST-WI)
  • Okumura-Hata
  • Street Microcell
  • Street Mobile-to—Mobile
  • Suburban

When the Auto-select option for pathloss model is chosen, QualNet selects appropriate pathloss models based on the node location and urban terrain features. Different path-loss models are used according to their locations with respect to obstacles in the propagation path. QualNet allows selection of different model(s) for each source-destination pair and changes the models dynamically as the node positions change.

The COST 231-Hata propagation model is an empirical model that extends the Hata model to higher frequencies (1500-2000 MHz). It is a outdoor propagation model that is applicable to urban and suburban areas. The model is based on extensive measurement campaigns, and it is valid for flat terrain. The application of the COST-Hata-Model is restricted to situations where node’s antenna height is above roof-top levels adjacent to the node.

  • Environment is urban, suburban, or open area
  • Frequency is in the range 150-2000 MHz (recommended)
  • Antenna height of the base station is in the range 30-200 meters (recommended)
  • Antenna height of the mobile station is in the range 1-10 meters (recommended)
  • Distance between the base station and mobile station is in the range 1-20 km (recommended)

The COST 231-Hata propagating model is accurate within 1 dB for distances ranging from 1 to 20 km.

The model is capable of distinguishing between man-made structures and provides different formulations for small, medium, or large cities and urban, suburban, or open areas.

The COST 231-WI propagation model is a combination of the Walfisch and Ikegami models. It is an empirical model that is based on different contributions from members of the “COST 231 Subgroup on Propagation Models”. The model allows for improved path-loss estimation by consideration of more data to describe the character of the urban environment and it is applicable to metropolitan centers and urban areas. This model is statistical as no topographical data base of the buildings is considered.

Wireless Library

The standard Wireless Library includes many typical wireless protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

Propagation

  • Airplane Pathloss Model (New)
  • Constant Shadowing Model
  • Fast Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Free-space Pathloss Model
  • Inter-channel Interference Model
  • Irregular Terrain Model (ITM)
  • Lognormal Shadowing Model
  • Millimeter Wave Pathloss Model (New)
  • Pathloss Matrix Model
  • Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Ricean Fading Model
  • Two-ray Pathloss Model

Physical (PHY) Layer

  • 802.11p PHY Model
  • 802.11a/g PHY Model
  • 802.11b PHY Model
  • 802.11n PHY Model
  • 802.11ac PHY Model
  • 802.11ax PHY Model
  • Abstract PHY Model
  • Antenna Models
  • Bit Error Rate-based (BER) Reception Model
  • Bluetooth PHY Model (New)
  • Radio Energy Models
  • SNR-based Reception Model

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • 802.11 MAC Protocol
  • 802.11p MAC Protocol
  • 802.11e MAC Protocol
  • 802.11n MAC Protocol
  • 802.11ac MAC Model
  • 802.11ax MAC Protocol
  • 802.11s MAC Protocol
  • Aloha MAC Protocol
  • Abstract Network Equation – Satellite (ANESAT) Model
  • Bluetooth Classic MAC Protocol (New)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy MAC Protocol (New)
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) MAC Protocol
  • Generic MAC Protocol
  • Microwave Links
  • Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) MAC Protocol
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) MAC Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
  • Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)
  • Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Protocol
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
  • Fisheye State Routing Protocol
  • Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP)
  • Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP)
  • Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) Protocol
  • Location-Aided Routing (LAR) Protocol
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol – INRIA (OLSR-INRIA)
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2)
  • Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) Protocol
  • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

Application Layer

  • Bluetooth Advertiser Application Model (New)
  • Bluetooth Application Model (New)

Multicast Routing

  • On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP)

Mobility

  • File-based Mobility Model
  • Group Node Placement and Mobility Models
  • Random Waypoint Mobility Model

Terrain

  • Cartesian Terrain Format
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Terrain Format
  • Digital Terrain Elevation (DTED) Terrain Format
  • ESRI Shapefile Terrain Format
  • Urban Terrain Data Format

Miscellaneous

  • Battery Models
  • Weather Pattern Model

Network Analysis for Cyber-Physical Systems Bundle

The Network Analysis for Cyber-Physical Systems Bundle includes the following model libraries:

Developer Library

The Developer Library includes a very long list of standard communications protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

MAC Layer

  • 802.3 LAN/Ethernet
  • Abstract Link MAC
  • Abstract Satellite Model
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Logical Link Control (LLC) Protocol

Network Layer

  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Fixed Communications Model
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  • Internet Protocol – Dual IP
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
  • IPv6 Autoconfiguration Model
  • Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Bellman-Ford Routing Protocol
  • Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng)
  • Routing Information Protocol/Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP/RIPv2)
  • Static and Default Routes

Multicast Routing

  • Static Multicast Routes

Queues and Schedulers

  • First-In First-Out (FIFO) Queue
  • Random Early Detection (RED) Queue
  • Random Early Detection with In/Out (RIO) Queue
  • Round Robin Scheduler
  • Self-Clocked Fair Queueing (SCFQ) Scheduler
  • Strict Priority Scheduler
  • Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Scheduler
  • Weighted RED (WRED) Queue
  • Weighted Round Robin (WRR) Scheduler

Transport Layer

  • Abstract Transmission Control Protocol (Abstract TCP)
  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Application Layer

  • Background Traffic Model
  • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Traffic Generator
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol/Generic (FTP/Generic)
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Lookup Traffic Generator
  • Multicast Constant Bit Rate (MCBR) Traffic Generator
  • Super Application Traffic Generator
  • Telecommunications Network (TELNET)
  • Traffic Generator (Traffic-Gen)
  • Trace File-based Traffic Generator (Traffic-Trace)
  • Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Traffic Generator

Multi-Layer

  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Vendor Interfaces

  • AGI System Toolkit (STK) Interface

Miscellaneous

  • Faults
  • File-based Node Placement Model
  • Grid Node Placement Model
  • Random Node Placement Model
  • Uniform Node Placement Model

Multimedia & Enterprise Library

The Multimedia and Enterprise Library covers an array of protocol and equipment elements.

The library supports:

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • Detailed Switch Model
  • Switched Ethernet
  • Virtual LAN (VLAN)

Network Protocols

  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Model
  • Layer 3 Switch Mode
  • Mobile IPv4

Unicast Routing

  • Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGPv4)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  • Open Shortest Path First version 2 (OSPFv2) Routing Protocol
  • Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3) Routing Protocol

Multicast Routing

  • Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
  • Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF)
  • Protocol Independent Multicast Protocol: Dense Mode (PIM-DM) and Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
  • Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Router Configuration

  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Policy-based Routing Protocol (PBR)
  • Route Map
  • Route Redistribution
  • Router Access List
  • Router Model

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Quality of Service Extensions to OSPF (QOSPF)

Multimedia Applications

  • H323 and H225 Protocols
  • Real-time Transfer Protocols
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Wireless Library

The standard Wireless Library includes many typical wireless protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

Propagation

  • Airplane Pathloss Model (New)
  • Constant Shadowing Model
  • Fast Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Free-space Pathloss Model
  • Inter-channel Interference Model
  • Irregular Terrain Model (ITM)
  • Lognormal Shadowing Model
  • Millimeter Wave Pathloss Model (New)
  • Pathloss Matrix Model
  • Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Ricean Fading Model
  • Two-ray Pathloss Model

Physical (PHY) Layer

  • 802.11p PHY Model
  • 802.11a/g PHY Model
  • 802.11b PHY Model
  • 802.11n PHY Model
  • 802.11ac PHY Model
  • 802.11ax PHY Model
  • Abstract PHY Model
  • Antenna Models
  • Bit Error Rate-based (BER) Reception Model
  • Bluetooth PHY Model (New)
  • Radio Energy Models
  • SNR-based Reception Model

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • 802.11 MAC Protocol
  • 802.11p MAC Protocol
  • 802.11e MAC Protocol
  • 802.11n MAC Protocol
  • 802.11ac MAC Model
  • 802.11ax MAC Protocol
  • 802.11s MAC Protocol
  • Aloha MAC Protocol
  • Abstract Network Equation – Satellite (ANESAT) Model
  • Bluetooth Classic MAC Protocol (New)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy MAC Protocol (New)
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) MAC Protocol
  • Generic MAC Protocol
  • Microwave Links
  • Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) MAC Protocol
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) MAC Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
  • Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)
  • Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Protocol
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
  • Fisheye State Routing Protocol
  • Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP)
  • Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP)
  • Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) Protocol
  • Location-Aided Routing (LAR) Protocol
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol – INRIA (OLSR-INRIA)
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2)
  • Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) Protocol
  • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

Application Layer

  • Bluetooth Advertiser Application Model (New)
  • Bluetooth Application Model (New)

Multicast Routing

  • On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP)

Mobility

  • File-based Mobility Model
  • Group Node Placement and Mobility Models
  • Random Waypoint Mobility Model

Terrain

  • Cartesian Terrain Format
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Terrain Format
  • Digital Terrain Elevation (DTED) Terrain Format
  • ESRI Shapefile Terrain Format
  • Urban Terrain Data Format

Miscellaneous

  • Battery Models
  • Weather Pattern Model

Network Analysis for Autonomous Systems Bundle

The Network Analysis for Autonomous Systems Bundle includes the following model libraries:

Developer Library

The Developer Library includes a very long list of standard communications protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

MAC Layer

  • 802.3 LAN/Ethernet
  • Abstract Link MAC
  • Abstract Satellite Model
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Logical Link Control (LLC) Protocol

Network Layer

  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Fixed Communications Model
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  • Internet Protocol – Dual IP
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
  • IPv6 Autoconfiguration Model
  • Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Bellman-Ford Routing Protocol
  • Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng)
  • Routing Information Protocol/Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP/RIPv2)
  • Static and Default Routes

Multicast Routing

  • Static Multicast Routes

Queues and Schedulers

  • First-In First-Out (FIFO) Queue
  • Random Early Detection (RED) Queue
  • Random Early Detection with In/Out (RIO) Queue
  • Round Robin Scheduler
  • Self-Clocked Fair Queueing (SCFQ) Scheduler
  • Strict Priority Scheduler
  • Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Scheduler
  • Weighted RED (WRED) Queue
  • Weighted Round Robin (WRR) Scheduler

Transport Layer

  • Abstract Transmission Control Protocol (Abstract TCP)
  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Application Layer

  • Background Traffic Model
  • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Traffic Generator
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol/Generic (FTP/Generic)
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Lookup Traffic Generator
  • Multicast Constant Bit Rate (MCBR) Traffic Generator
  • Super Application Traffic Generator
  • Telecommunications Network (TELNET)
  • Traffic Generator (Traffic-Gen)
  • Trace File-based Traffic Generator (Traffic-Trace)
  • Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Traffic Generator

Multi-Layer

  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Vendor Interfaces

  • AGI System Toolkit (STK) Interface

Miscellaneous

  • Faults
  • File-based Node Placement Model
  • Grid Node Placement Model
  • Random Node Placement Model
  • Uniform Node Placement Model

Multimedia & Enterprise Library

The Multimedia and Enterprise Library covers an array of protocol and equipment elements.

The library supports:

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • Detailed Switch Model
  • Switched Ethernet
  • Virtual LAN (VLAN)

Network Protocols

  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Model
  • Layer 3 Switch Mode
  • Mobile IPv4

Unicast Routing

  • Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGPv4)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  • Open Shortest Path First version 2 (OSPFv2) Routing Protocol
  • Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3) Routing Protocol

Multicast Routing

  • Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
  • Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF)
  • Protocol Independent Multicast Protocol: Dense Mode (PIM-DM) and Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
  • Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Router Configuration

  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Policy-based Routing Protocol (PBR)
  • Route Map
  • Route Redistribution
  • Router Access List
  • Router Model

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Quality of Service Extensions to OSPF (QOSPF)

Multimedia Applications

  • H323 and H225 Protocols
  • Real-time Transfer Protocols
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Federation Interface Library

The Federation Interfaces Library can be incorporated into QualNet and EXata models, adding support for multi-simulator integration.

Multiple simulators can be used to simulate different aspects of the same scenario. The results of such a co-operative simulation can be more realistic and meaningful than those obtained by using any single simulator. The simulators interoperate with each other via data sharing to achieve a consistent representation of the simulation environment. Several standards, such as Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA), have been developed to facilitate data sharing among simulators.

High Level Architecture

High Level Architecture (HLA) is a specification that enables two or more software programs (usually simulation software) to interoperate. The software programs communicate with each other through a Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) module, which implements the HLA interface specification.

Distributed Interactive Simulation

Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) is an IEEE standard for interfacing multiple simulation tools into a single, real-time simulation. The transport of information between simulators is performed using UDP and broadcast and/or multicast IP. Although superseded by HLA and IEEE 1516, DIS still remains popular for its simplicity of operation and the ease of creating a DIS interface. In HLA terminology, the collection of communicating simulations is called a federation and each simulation is called a federate. The object and interaction classes used in the federation are defined in a module called Federation Object Model (FOM). Information is exchanged between simulations using this FOM.

Socket Interface

Communication between a SCALABLE application and the external program is implemented over a TCP socket, with the SCALABLE application acting as the server and the external program as the client. Several types of messages can be sent between the two processes.

Cellular Library

The Cellular Library can be incorporated into QualNet, EXata and NDT models, adding support for GSM communications.

In the Abstract Cellular Model, a single base station serves a circular service area that is divided into multiple sectors, each of which is allocated with a certain amount of bandwidth. For each base station, several control channels are defined. A large number of base stations cover the simulated area and they are connected to a hub, the switch center, with wired links. The hub routes the control and data messages to/from the base stations. An aggregated node emulates the services originated or destined to nodes outside the simulated area. A gateway connects to all the BSs and the aggregated node. With help from HLR, the gateway routes the information flows between MSs or between MS and the aggregated node.

The GSM model in QualNet models the behavior of Mobile Stations (MSs), Base Stations (BSs), and Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs), and the “Um” (BS-to-MS) and “A” (BS-to-MSC) interfaces. The MSs can be located anywhere and can be mobile. The BSs and MSC are stationary. The GSM model allows multiple MSs, multiple BSs, and a single MSC in any scenario. Each BS is connected to the MSC by a wired point-to-point link.

Implemented Features

  • Configuration of MSC, multiple Base Stations, and multiple Mobile Stations
  • Standard band is supported (900 MHz Mobile Stations and Base Stations)
  • Cell selection and re-selection
  • Dynamic channel assignment and release
  • Location update
  • Call setup and tear-down
  • Handover (intra-MSC and inter-cell/Base Station)

5G Library

The 5G Library can be incorporated into QualNet, EXata, and NDT models, adding support for 5G-based communications.

5G is the 5th generation mobile network. It is a new global wireless standard after 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks that provides higher data speeds, ultra low latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and a more uniform user experience. 5G will be able to support all communication needs from low power Local Area Network (LAN) to Wide Area Networks (WAN), with the right latency/speed settings. The non-standalone (NSA) mode of 5G depends on the control plane of an existing 4G LTE network for control functions, while 5G is exclusively focused on the user plane. The standalone (SA) mode of 5G uses 5G cells for both signaling and information transfer. It includes the new 5G Packet Core architecture instead of relying on the 4G Evolved Packet Core, to allow the deployment of 5G without the LTE network.

The SCALABLE 5G Library is based on the 3GPP Release 15. The main features of the 5G models are:

  • Two deployment options: Option 3 (Non-standalone mode) and Option 2 (Standalone mode)
  • Two execution modes: High fidelity and high performance
  • 5G Core entities like AMF, SMF etc.
  • 5G Ran entities like 5G NodeB etc.
  • OFDMA/SC-FDMA PHY
  • FDD and TDD modes
  • FR1 and FR2 frequency band
  • Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)
  • Carrier Aggregation of upto 16 carriers in DL and UL
  • Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
  • Millimeter Wave (MMW) propagation
  • Beamforming
  • Handover

Wireless Library

The standard Wireless Library includes many typical wireless protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

Propagation

  • Airplane Pathloss Model (New)
  • Constant Shadowing Model
  • Fast Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Free-space Pathloss Model
  • Inter-channel Interference Model
  • Irregular Terrain Model (ITM)
  • Lognormal Shadowing Model
  • Millimeter Wave Pathloss Model (New)
  • Pathloss Matrix Model
  • Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Ricean Fading Model
  • Two-ray Pathloss Model

Physical (PHY) Layer

  • 802.11p PHY Model
  • 802.11a/g PHY Model
  • 802.11b PHY Model
  • 802.11n PHY Model
  • 802.11ac PHY Model
  • 802.11ax PHY Model
  • Abstract PHY Model
  • Antenna Models
  • Bit Error Rate-based (BER) Reception Model
  • Bluetooth PHY Model (New)
  • Radio Energy Models
  • SNR-based Reception Model

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • 802.11 MAC Protocol
  • 802.11p MAC Protocol
  • 802.11e MAC Protocol
  • 802.11n MAC Protocol
  • 802.11ac MAC Model
  • 802.11ax MAC Protocol
  • 802.11s MAC Protocol
  • Aloha MAC Protocol
  • Abstract Network Equation – Satellite (ANESAT) Model
  • Bluetooth Classic MAC Protocol (New)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy MAC Protocol (New)
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) MAC Protocol
  • Generic MAC Protocol
  • Microwave Links
  • Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) MAC Protocol
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) MAC Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
  • Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)
  • Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Protocol
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
  • Fisheye State Routing Protocol
  • Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP)
  • Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP)
  • Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) Protocol
  • Location-Aided Routing (LAR) Protocol
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol – INRIA (OLSR-INRIA)
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2)
  • Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) Protocol
  • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

Application Layer

  • Bluetooth Advertiser Application Model (New)
  • Bluetooth Application Model (New)

Multicast Routing

  • On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP)

Mobility

  • File-based Mobility Model
  • Group Node Placement and Mobility Models
  • Random Waypoint Mobility Model

Terrain

  • Cartesian Terrain Format
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Terrain Format
  • Digital Terrain Elevation (DTED) Terrain Format
  • ESRI Shapefile Terrain Format
  • Urban Terrain Data Format

Miscellaneous

  • Battery Models
  • Weather Pattern Model

Sensor Networks Library

The Sensor Networks Library can be incorporated into QualNet, EXata and NDT models, adding support for distributed sensor environments.

ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs). ZigBee is targeted at RF applications that require a low data rate, long battery life, and secure networking. These networks are aimed at automation, remote control, and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard defines the physical layer (PHY) and Medium Access Control sublayer (MAC) specifications as the wireless communication standard for low-power consumption, Low-Rate WPAN (LR-WPANs).

Implemented Features

  • ZigBee Application
  • ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) MAC
  • Thread (IEEE 802.15.4) MAC (New)
  • ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) PHY

The SCALABLE ZigBee PHY is based on the IEEE 802.15.4-2006 standard. The PHY layer provides an interface between the MAC layer and the physical radio channel. It provides two services, accessed through two service access points (SAPs). These are the PHY data service and the PHY management service.

The PHY layer is responsible for the following tasks:

Activation and deactivation of the radio transceiver

Turn the radio transceiver into one of the three states,(i.e., transmitting, receiving, or off (sleeping)) according to the request from MAC sublayer. The turnaround time from transmitting to receiving, or vice versa, should be not more than 12 symbol periods.

Energy Detection (ED) within the current channel

It is an estimate of the received signal power within the bandwidth of an IEEE 802.15.4 channel. No attempt is made to identify or decode signals on the channel in this procedure. The energy detection time shall be equal to 8 symbol periods. The result from energy detection can be used by a network layer as part of a channel selection algorithm, or for the purpose of clear channel assessment (CCA) (alone or combined with carrier sense).

Link Quality Indication (LQI) for received packets

Link quality indication measurement is performed for each received packet. The PHY layer uses receiver energy detection (ED), a signal-to-noise ratio, or a combination of these to measure the strength and the quality of a link from which a packet is received. However, the use of LQI result by the network or application layers is not specified in the standard.

Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA-CA)

The PHY layer is required to perform CCA using energy detection, carrier sense, or a combination of these two. In energy detection mode, the medium is considered busy if any energy above a predefined energy threshold is detected. In carrier sense mode, the medium is considered busy if a signal with the modulation and spreading characteristics of IEEE 802.15.4 is detected. And in the combined mode, both conditions aforementioned need to be met in order to conclude that the medium is busy.

Urban Propagation Library

The Urban Propagation Library can be incorporated into QualNet, EXata and NDT models.

The library supports propagation models for:

  • Automatic Model Selection
  • COST 231-Hata
  • COST 231-Walfish-Ikegami (COST-WI)
  • Okumura-Hata
  • Street Microcell
  • Street Mobile-to—Mobile
  • Suburban

When the Auto-select option for pathloss model is chosen, QualNet selects appropriate pathloss models based on the node location and urban terrain features. Different path-loss models are used according to their locations with respect to obstacles in the propagation path. QualNet allows selection of different model(s) for each source-destination pair and changes the models dynamically as the node positions change.

The COST 231-Hata propagation model is an empirical model that extends the Hata model to higher frequencies (1500-2000 MHz). It is a outdoor propagation model that is applicable to urban and suburban areas. The model is based on extensive measurement campaigns, and it is valid for flat terrain. The application of the COST-Hata-Model is restricted to situations where node’s antenna height is above roof-top levels adjacent to the node.

  • Environment is urban, suburban, or open area
  • Frequency is in the range 150-2000 MHz (recommended)
  • Antenna height of the base station is in the range 30-200 meters (recommended)
  • Antenna height of the mobile station is in the range 1-10 meters (recommended)
  • Distance between the base station and mobile station is in the range 1-20 km (recommended)

The COST 231-Hata propagating model is accurate within 1 dB for distances ranging from 1 to 20 km.

The model is capable of distinguishing between man-made structures and provides different formulations for small, medium, or large cities and urban, suburban, or open areas.

The COST 231-WI propagation model is a combination of the Walfisch and Ikegami models. It is an empirical model that is based on different contributions from members of the “COST 231 Subgroup on Propagation Models”. The model allows for improved path-loss estimation by consideration of more data to describe the character of the urban environment and it is applicable to metropolitan centers and urban areas. This model is statistical as no topographical data base of the buildings is considered.

Related Resources

Reliable, Effective and Secure Networks for Critical Infrastructure

Our digital twin tools provide capabilities to identify and log human actions, correlating those actions with cyber-attack progression, network performance, and cyber-physical system behavior.

Digital Twins for Autonomous Technology and Transportation

V2X communications must operate reliabily in a dynamic environment, with high relative speeds, low latency for dynamic connections, and safety-critical message receipt, in crowded urban environments with interfering signals.

Protecting Critical Financial Services Data

Creating network digital twins for financial institutions can provide multiple benefits throughout the lifecycle of the physical networks they represent, including improved performance and a safe environment for cyber security testing.

High Fidelity 5G Modeling with Network Digital Twins

From smart cities to military bases, critical infrastructure is about to get more complex with 5G networks. Modeling and simulation is critical to understand, protect, and ensure the resiliency of network operations.

White Papers

Co-simulation Testbed Developed with OPAL-RT Technologies

Learn the benefits of co-simulation for development, testing, and assessment of electrical grids with communication networks.

Ukraine Power Grid Attack - A Case Study on the Use of Network Digital Twins for Assessing Cyber Resilience

To prepare for the inevitable future cyber attacks, it is essential to understand and thoroughly analyze how cyber attackers can infiltrate the system, even those employing robust defense-in-depth strategies.

Automated Creation of Network Digital Twins

Digital Twins can be used for analysis which can provide insights and actionable information to improve the process or product in terms of optimized performance, cost-effectiveness, readiness, or maintenance.

Key Features of EXata

Real Time Emulator

Seamlessly interface with other live equipment and applications

Cyber Testing

Test the resiliency of your network to Cyber Attacks

Network Digital Twin

Test your network in a low-cost, zero-risk environment

Scalability

Model thousands of nodes with parallel execution

Model Fidelity

Models simulate accurate real-world behavior

Commercial enterprises, educational institutions, and governmental organizations around the world all depend on reliable, effective networks to deliver business-critical, mission-critical communications, and information. SCALABLE maintains a highly experienced group of technical professionals to support customers and projects of any scale and solve challenging problems with our advanced network digital twin technology.

Contact Us
White Papers
Newsletter