Network Digital Twins for Wargaming and Operational Analysis

Bundles to Support All Defense Domains

Modern warfare requires integration across all domains: land, sea, air, space, and cyber. This creates an urgent need for wargames to incorporate real-world cyber, communications, and networking effects to support development of effective operating concepts, capabilities, and plans. The complexity of a multi-domain, combined cyber and kinetic battlefield requires incorporation of high fidelity, physics-based network digital twins into future wargame environments to adequately account for potential impacts resulting from degraded network operations and/or cyber vulnerabilities on overall mission outcomes.

Our network digital twins provide design and analysis tools and cyber training systems to develop, test and deploy large sophisticated wired and wireless networks and communications equipment. It can be used to enhance overall wargame fidelity in a low-cost and zero-risk environment, improving the knowledge and insights gained from wargame execution.

Network digital twins offer a realistic network platform for war games to model all aspects of the mission. The wargaming platform then handles the platform mobility and the kinetic missions, while the network digital twin handles the underlying communication network and cyber effects.

Benefits of Network Digital Twins for Cyber Resilience Testing

Large-scale wargaming: It is difficult to deploy live large-scale wargame scenarios or missions due to time and resource constraints. Using a network digital twin, it is possible to recreate the whole or a segment of the scenario, making large scale wargames easier to conduct. This facilitates at-scale testing of new tactics and strategies for future conflicts.

Cyber threats: Network digital twins can make it easier to scale the scope of cyber resilience tests by allowing many cyberattacks, for example, vulnerability exploitation, virus/worm propagation, or Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS), to be executed on models without the risk of damaging or compromising the live system.

Extending a test: Often, post-test analysis and After-Action Review (AAR) identify further tests that could lead to a more thorough understanding of the system’s operation and potential means to mitigate threats. For example, the results of a test may highlight the need to investigate what might happen if a compromised system were removed from the network and traffic allowed to travel through an alternate route and the impact of this change on the flow of mission sensitive data. This test can be performed swiftly and with minimum effort when using a network digital twin.

Effective test planning: When using a network digital twin, multiple configurations or profiles can be examined to set a priority for tests or scenarios to run and help select the most effective scenarios.

Network digital twin analysis can also integrate easily into machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) to help bring the data and the context of the data together, allowing the scenario designer to test alternatives and possibly find issues in the scenario before they arise. This can be done using faster than real time execution of the wargaming platform in conjunction with the network digital twin and feeding the results into a machine learning algorithm and allowing the algorithm to recommend modifications to the parameters being examined.

Network Digital Twins to Support All Defense Domains

Design, test, analyze & assess cyber resilience of tactical battlefield communications for enhanced operational planning, training and communications without the expense of building out physical infrastructure.

Wargaming/Operational Analysis for Air Bundle

The Wargaming/Operational Analysis for Air Bundle includes the following model libraries:

Developer Library

The Developer Library includes a very long list of standard communications protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

MAC Layer

  • 802.3 LAN/Ethernet
  • Abstract Link MAC
  • Abstract Satellite Model
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Logical Link Control (LLC) Protocol

Network Layer

  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Fixed Communications Model
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  • Internet Protocol – Dual IP
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
  • IPv6 Autoconfiguration Model
  • Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Bellman-Ford Routing Protocol
  • Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng)
  • Routing Information Protocol/Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP/RIPv2)
  • Static and Default Routes

Multicast Routing

  • Static Multicast Routes

Queues and Schedulers

  • First-In First-Out (FIFO) Queue
  • Random Early Detection (RED) Queue
  • Random Early Detection with In/Out (RIO) Queue
  • Round Robin Scheduler
  • Self-Clocked Fair Queueing (SCFQ) Scheduler
  • Strict Priority Scheduler
  • Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Scheduler
  • Weighted RED (WRED) Queue
  • Weighted Round Robin (WRR) Scheduler

Transport Layer

  • Abstract Transmission Control Protocol (Abstract TCP)
  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Application Layer

  • Background Traffic Model
  • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Traffic Generator
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol/Generic (FTP/Generic)
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Lookup Traffic Generator
  • Multicast Constant Bit Rate (MCBR) Traffic Generator
  • Super Application Traffic Generator
  • Telecommunications Network (TELNET)
  • Traffic Generator (Traffic-Gen)
  • Trace File-based Traffic Generator (Traffic-Trace)
  • Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Traffic Generator

Multi-Layer

  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Vendor Interfaces

  • AGI System Toolkit (STK) Interface

Miscellaneous

  • Faults
  • File-based Node Placement Model
  • Grid Node Placement Model
  • Random Node Placement Model
  • Uniform Node Placement Model

Multimedia & Enterprise Library

The Multimedia and Enterprise Library covers an array of protocol and equipment elements.

The library supports:

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • Detailed Switch Model
  • Switched Ethernet
  • Virtual LAN (VLAN)

Network Protocols

  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Model
  • Layer 3 Switch Mode
  • Mobile IPv4

Unicast Routing

  • Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGPv4)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  • Open Shortest Path First version 2 (OSPFv2) Routing Protocol
  • Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3) Routing Protocol

Multicast Routing

  • Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
  • Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF)
  • Protocol Independent Multicast Protocol: Dense Mode (PIM-DM) and Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
  • Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Router Configuration

  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Policy-based Routing Protocol (PBR)
  • Route Map
  • Route Redistribution
  • Router Access List
  • Router Model

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Quality of Service Extensions to OSPF (QOSPF)

Multimedia Applications

  • H323 and H225 Protocols
  • Real-time Transfer Protocols
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Military Radios Library

The Military Radios Library includes models for:

  • Link 11
  • Link 16
  • Multi-Generator (MGEN) Toolset
  • Threaded Application
  • Compact Terrain Database
  • FCSC Radio Prototype

Details on this library are available upon request.

Wireless Library

The standard Wireless Library includes many typical wireless protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

Propagation

  • Airplane Pathloss Model (New)
  • Constant Shadowing Model
  • Fast Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Free-space Pathloss Model
  • Inter-channel Interference Model
  • Irregular Terrain Model (ITM)
  • Lognormal Shadowing Model
  • Millimeter Wave Pathloss Model (New)
  • Pathloss Matrix Model
  • Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Ricean Fading Model
  • Two-ray Pathloss Model

Physical (PHY) Layer

  • 802.11p PHY Model
  • 802.11a/g PHY Model
  • 802.11b PHY Model
  • 802.11n PHY Model
  • 802.11ac PHY Model
  • 802.11ax PHY Model
  • Abstract PHY Model
  • Antenna Models
  • Bit Error Rate-based (BER) Reception Model
  • Bluetooth PHY Model (New)
  • Radio Energy Models
  • SNR-based Reception Model

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • 802.11 MAC Protocol
  • 802.11p MAC Protocol
  • 802.11e MAC Protocol
  • 802.11n MAC Protocol
  • 802.11ac MAC Model
  • 802.11ax MAC Protocol
  • 802.11s MAC Protocol
  • Aloha MAC Protocol
  • Abstract Network Equation – Satellite (ANESAT) Model
  • Bluetooth Classic MAC Protocol (New)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy MAC Protocol (New)
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) MAC Protocol
  • Generic MAC Protocol
  • Microwave Links
  • Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) MAC Protocol
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) MAC Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
  • Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)
  • Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Protocol
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
  • Fisheye State Routing Protocol
  • Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP)
  • Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP)
  • Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) Protocol
  • Location-Aided Routing (LAR) Protocol
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol – INRIA (OLSR-INRIA)
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2)
  • Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) Protocol
  • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

Application Layer

  • Bluetooth Advertiser Application Model (New)
  • Bluetooth Application Model (New)

Multicast Routing

  • On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP)

Mobility

  • File-based Mobility Model
  • Group Node Placement and Mobility Models
  • Random Waypoint Mobility Model

Terrain

  • Cartesian Terrain Format
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Terrain Format
  • Digital Terrain Elevation (DTED) Terrain Format
  • ESRI Shapefile Terrain Format
  • Urban Terrain Data Format

Miscellaneous

  • Battery Models
  • Weather Pattern Model

Federation Interfaces Library

The Federation Interfaces Library can be incorporated into QualNet and EXata models, adding support for multi-simulator integration.

Multiple simulators can be used to simulate different aspects of the same scenario. The results of such a co-operative simulation can be more realistic and meaningful than those obtained by using any single simulator. The simulators interoperate with each other via data sharing to achieve a consistent representation of the simulation environment. Several standards, such as Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA), have been developed to facilitate data sharing among simulators.

High Level Architecture

High Level Architecture (HLA) is a specification that enables two or more software programs (usually simulation software) to interoperate. The software programs communicate with each other through a Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) module, which implements the HLA interface specification.

Distributed Interactive Simulation

Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) is an IEEE standard for interfacing multiple simulation tools into a single, real-time simulation. The transport of information between simulators is performed using UDP and broadcast and/or multicast IP. Although superseded by HLA and IEEE 1516, DIS still remains popular for its simplicity of operation and the ease of creating a DIS interface. In HLA terminology, the collection of communicating simulations is called a federation and each simulation is called a federate. The object and interaction classes used in the federation are defined in a module called Federation Object Model (FOM). Information is exchanged between simulations using this FOM.

Socket Interface

Communication between a SCALABLE application and the external program is implemented over a TCP socket, with the SCALABLE application acting as the server and the external program as the client. Several types of messages can be sent between the two processes.

Wargaming/Operational Analysis for Ground Bundle

The Wargaming/Operational Analysis for Ground Bundle includes the following model libraries:

Developer Library

The Developer Library includes a very long list of standard communications protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

MAC Layer

  • 802.3 LAN/Ethernet
  • Abstract Link MAC
  • Abstract Satellite Model
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Logical Link Control (LLC) Protocol

Network Layer

  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Fixed Communications Model
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  • Internet Protocol – Dual IP
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
  • IPv6 Autoconfiguration Model
  • Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Bellman-Ford Routing Protocol
  • Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng)
  • Routing Information Protocol/Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP/RIPv2)
  • Static and Default Routes

Multicast Routing

  • Static Multicast Routes

Queues and Schedulers

  • First-In First-Out (FIFO) Queue
  • Random Early Detection (RED) Queue
  • Random Early Detection with In/Out (RIO) Queue
  • Round Robin Scheduler
  • Self-Clocked Fair Queueing (SCFQ) Scheduler
  • Strict Priority Scheduler
  • Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Scheduler
  • Weighted RED (WRED) Queue
  • Weighted Round Robin (WRR) Scheduler

Transport Layer

  • Abstract Transmission Control Protocol (Abstract TCP)
  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Application Layer

  • Background Traffic Model
  • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Traffic Generator
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol/Generic (FTP/Generic)
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Lookup Traffic Generator
  • Multicast Constant Bit Rate (MCBR) Traffic Generator
  • Super Application Traffic Generator
  • Telecommunications Network (TELNET)
  • Traffic Generator (Traffic-Gen)
  • Trace File-based Traffic Generator (Traffic-Trace)
  • Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Traffic Generator

Multi-Layer

  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Vendor Interfaces

  • AGI System Toolkit (STK) Interface

Miscellaneous

  • Faults
  • File-based Node Placement Model
  • Grid Node Placement Model
  • Random Node Placement Model
  • Uniform Node Placement Model

Multimedia & Enterprise Library

The Multimedia and Enterprise Library covers an array of protocol and equipment elements.

The library supports:

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • Detailed Switch Model
  • Switched Ethernet
  • Virtual LAN (VLAN)

Network Protocols

  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Model
  • Layer 3 Switch Mode
  • Mobile IPv4

Unicast Routing

  • Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGPv4)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  • Open Shortest Path First version 2 (OSPFv2) Routing Protocol
  • Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3) Routing Protocol

Multicast Routing

  • Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
  • Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF)
  • Protocol Independent Multicast Protocol: Dense Mode (PIM-DM) and Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
  • Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Router Configuration

  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Policy-based Routing Protocol (PBR)
  • Route Map
  • Route Redistribution
  • Router Access List
  • Router Model

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Quality of Service Extensions to OSPF (QOSPF)

Multimedia Applications

  • H323 and H225 Protocols
  • Real-time Transfer Protocols
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Federation Interfaces Library

The Federation Interfaces Library can be incorporated into QualNet and EXata models, adding support for multi-simulator integration.

Multiple simulators can be used to simulate different aspects of the same scenario. The results of such a co-operative simulation can be more realistic and meaningful than those obtained by using any single simulator. The simulators interoperate with each other via data sharing to achieve a consistent representation of the simulation environment. Several standards, such as Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA), have been developed to facilitate data sharing among simulators.

High Level Architecture

High Level Architecture (HLA) is a specification that enables two or more software programs (usually simulation software) to interoperate. The software programs communicate with each other through a Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) module, which implements the HLA interface specification.

Distributed Interactive Simulation

Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) is an IEEE standard for interfacing multiple simulation tools into a single, real-time simulation. The transport of information between simulators is performed using UDP and broadcast and/or multicast IP. Although superseded by HLA and IEEE 1516, DIS still remains popular for its simplicity of operation and the ease of creating a DIS interface. In HLA terminology, the collection of communicating simulations is called a federation and each simulation is called a federate. The object and interaction classes used in the federation are defined in a module called Federation Object Model (FOM). Information is exchanged between simulations using this FOM.

Socket Interface

Communication between a SCALABLE application and the external program is implemented over a TCP socket, with the SCALABLE application acting as the server and the external program as the client. Several types of messages can be sent between the two processes.

Military Radios Library

The Military Radios Library includes models for:

  • Link 11
  • Link 16
  • Multi-Generator (MGEN) Toolset
  • Threaded Application
  • Compact Terrain Database
  • FCSC Radio Prototype

Details on this library are available upon request.

Urban Propagation Library

The Urban Propagation Library can be incorporated into QualNet, EXata and NDT models.

The library supports propagation models for:

  • Automatic Model Selection
  • COST 231-Hata
  • COST 231-Walfish-Ikegami (COST-WI)
  • Okumura-Hata
  • Street Microcell
  • Street Mobile-to—Mobile
  • Suburban

When the Auto-select option for pathloss model is chosen, QualNet selects appropriate pathloss models based on the node location and urban terrain features. Different path-loss models are used according to their locations with respect to obstacles in the propagation path. QualNet allows selection of different model(s) for each source-destination pair and changes the models dynamically as the node positions change.

The COST 231-Hata propagation model is an empirical model that extends the Hata model to higher frequencies (1500-2000 MHz). It is a outdoor propagation model that is applicable to urban and suburban areas. The model is based on extensive measurement campaigns, and it is valid for flat terrain. The application of the COST-Hata-Model is restricted to situations where node’s antenna height is above roof-top levels adjacent to the node.

  • Environment is urban, suburban, or open area
  • Frequency is in the range 150-2000 MHz (recommended)
  • Antenna height of the base station is in the range 30-200 meters (recommended)
  • Antenna height of the mobile station is in the range 1-10 meters (recommended)
  • Distance between the base station and mobile station is in the range 1-20 km (recommended)

The COST 231-Hata propagating model is accurate within 1 dB for distances ranging from 1 to 20 km.

The model is capable of distinguishing between man-made structures and provides different formulations for small, medium, or large cities and urban, suburban, or open areas.

The COST 231-WI propagation model is a combination of the Walfisch and Ikegami models. It is an empirical model that is based on different contributions from members of the “COST 231 Subgroup on Propagation Models”. The model allows for improved path-loss estimation by consideration of more data to describe the character of the urban environment and it is applicable to metropolitan centers and urban areas. This model is statistical as no topographical data base of the buildings is considered.

Wireless Library

The standard Wireless Library includes many typical wireless protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

Propagation

  • Airplane Pathloss Model (New)
  • Constant Shadowing Model
  • Fast Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Free-space Pathloss Model
  • Inter-channel Interference Model
  • Irregular Terrain Model (ITM)
  • Lognormal Shadowing Model
  • Millimeter Wave Pathloss Model (New)
  • Pathloss Matrix Model
  • Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Ricean Fading Model
  • Two-ray Pathloss Model

Physical (PHY) Layer

  • 802.11p PHY Model
  • 802.11a/g PHY Model
  • 802.11b PHY Model
  • 802.11n PHY Model
  • 802.11ac PHY Model
  • 802.11ax PHY Model
  • Abstract PHY Model
  • Antenna Models
  • Bit Error Rate-based (BER) Reception Model
  • Bluetooth PHY Model (New)
  • Radio Energy Models
  • SNR-based Reception Model

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • 802.11 MAC Protocol
  • 802.11p MAC Protocol
  • 802.11e MAC Protocol
  • 802.11n MAC Protocol
  • 802.11ac MAC Model
  • 802.11ax MAC Protocol
  • 802.11s MAC Protocol
  • Aloha MAC Protocol
  • Abstract Network Equation – Satellite (ANESAT) Model
  • Bluetooth Classic MAC Protocol (New)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy MAC Protocol (New)
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) MAC Protocol
  • Generic MAC Protocol
  • Microwave Links
  • Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) MAC Protocol
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) MAC Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
  • Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)
  • Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Protocol
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
  • Fisheye State Routing Protocol
  • Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP)
  • Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP)
  • Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) Protocol
  • Location-Aided Routing (LAR) Protocol
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol – INRIA (OLSR-INRIA)
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2)
  • Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) Protocol
  • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

Application Layer

  • Bluetooth Advertiser Application Model (New)
  • Bluetooth Application Model (New)

Multicast Routing

  • On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP)

Mobility

  • File-based Mobility Model
  • Group Node Placement and Mobility Models
  • Random Waypoint Mobility Model

Terrain

  • Cartesian Terrain Format
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Terrain Format
  • Digital Terrain Elevation (DTED) Terrain Format
  • ESRI Shapefile Terrain Format
  • Urban Terrain Data Format

Miscellaneous

  • Battery Models
  • Weather Pattern Model

Wargaming/Operational Analysis for Maritime Bundle

The Wargaming/Operational Analysis for Maritime Bundle includes the following model libraries:

Developer Library

The Developer Library includes a very long list of standard communications protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

MAC Layer

  • 802.3 LAN/Ethernet
  • Abstract Link MAC
  • Abstract Satellite Model
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Logical Link Control (LLC) Protocol

Network Layer

  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Fixed Communications Model
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  • Internet Protocol – Dual IP
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
  • IPv6 Autoconfiguration Model
  • Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Bellman-Ford Routing Protocol
  • Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng)
  • Routing Information Protocol/Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP/RIPv2)
  • Static and Default Routes

Multicast Routing

  • Static Multicast Routes

Queues and Schedulers

  • First-In First-Out (FIFO) Queue
  • Random Early Detection (RED) Queue
  • Random Early Detection with In/Out (RIO) Queue
  • Round Robin Scheduler
  • Self-Clocked Fair Queueing (SCFQ) Scheduler
  • Strict Priority Scheduler
  • Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Scheduler
  • Weighted RED (WRED) Queue
  • Weighted Round Robin (WRR) Scheduler

Transport Layer

  • Abstract Transmission Control Protocol (Abstract TCP)
  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Application Layer

  • Background Traffic Model
  • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Traffic Generator
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol/Generic (FTP/Generic)
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Lookup Traffic Generator
  • Multicast Constant Bit Rate (MCBR) Traffic Generator
  • Super Application Traffic Generator
  • Telecommunications Network (TELNET)
  • Traffic Generator (Traffic-Gen)
  • Trace File-based Traffic Generator (Traffic-Trace)
  • Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Traffic Generator

Multi-Layer

  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Vendor Interfaces

  • AGI System Toolkit (STK) Interface

Miscellaneous

  • Faults
  • File-based Node Placement Model
  • Grid Node Placement Model
  • Random Node Placement Model
  • Uniform Node Placement Model

Multimedia & Enterprise Library

The Multimedia and Enterprise Library covers an array of protocol and equipment elements.

The library supports:

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • Detailed Switch Model
  • Switched Ethernet
  • Virtual LAN (VLAN)

Network Protocols

  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Model
  • Layer 3 Switch Mode
  • Mobile IPv4

Unicast Routing

  • Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGPv4)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  • Open Shortest Path First version 2 (OSPFv2) Routing Protocol
  • Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3) Routing Protocol

Multicast Routing

  • Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
  • Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF)
  • Protocol Independent Multicast Protocol: Dense Mode (PIM-DM) and Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
  • Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Router Configuration

  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Policy-based Routing Protocol (PBR)
  • Route Map
  • Route Redistribution
  • Router Access List
  • Router Model

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Quality of Service Extensions to OSPF (QOSPF)

Multimedia Applications

  • H323 and H225 Protocols
  • Real-time Transfer Protocols
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Federation Interfaces Library

The Federation Interfaces Library can be incorporated into QualNet and EXata models, adding support for multi-simulator integration.

Multiple simulators can be used to simulate different aspects of the same scenario. The results of such a co-operative simulation can be more realistic and meaningful than those obtained by using any single simulator. The simulators interoperate with each other via data sharing to achieve a consistent representation of the simulation environment. Several standards, such as Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA), have been developed to facilitate data sharing among simulators.

High Level Architecture

High Level Architecture (HLA) is a specification that enables two or more software programs (usually simulation software) to interoperate. The software programs communicate with each other through a Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) module, which implements the HLA interface specification.

Distributed Interactive Simulation

Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) is an IEEE standard for interfacing multiple simulation tools into a single, real-time simulation. The transport of information between simulators is performed using UDP and broadcast and/or multicast IP. Although superseded by HLA and IEEE 1516, DIS still remains popular for its simplicity of operation and the ease of creating a DIS interface. In HLA terminology, the collection of communicating simulations is called a federation and each simulation is called a federate. The object and interaction classes used in the federation are defined in a module called Federation Object Model (FOM). Information is exchanged between simulations using this FOM.

Socket Interface

Communication between a SCALABLE application and the external program is implemented over a TCP socket, with the SCALABLE application acting as the server and the external program as the client. Several types of messages can be sent between the two processes.

Military Radios Library

The Military Radios Library includes models for:

  • Link 11
  • Link 16
  • Multi-Generator (MGEN) Toolset
  • Threaded Application
  • Compact Terrain Database
  • FCSC Radio Prototype

Details on this library are available upon request.

TIREM Propagation Library

The Terrain Integrated Rough Earth Model (TIREM) Library can be incorporated into QualNet and EXata virtual network models, adding support for terrain propagation effects.

TIREM is a propagation model which predicts the pathloss along the propagation path over irregular terrain at frequencies between 1 MHz and 40 GHz. Based on the geometry of the terrain profile, the appropriate propagation behavior is used to calculate the pathloss.

The core technology for TIREM was developed by Alion Science & Technology Corporation under contract to the US Defense Information Systems Agency. Alion licenses this core technology directly to customers for a fee. The SCALABLE TIREM Library is a connector and a “wrapper” for the Alion code providing tight integration into QualNet and EXata virtual network models. Customers who want TIREM functionality would purchase our TIREM Library and then contact Alion directly to purchase the core code. These two elements are then compiled together and linked into your QualNet or EXata simulation platform implementation.

Contact information for the TIREM core technology at Alion can be found HERE.

SCALABLE supports terrain data for both Cartesian and latitude/longitude coordinate systems. DTED and DEM, which both require latitude/ longitude coordinates, are the most commonly used.

Wireless Library

The standard Wireless Library includes many typical wireless protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

Propagation

  • Airplane Pathloss Model (New)
  • Constant Shadowing Model
  • Fast Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Free-space Pathloss Model
  • Inter-channel Interference Model
  • Irregular Terrain Model (ITM)
  • Lognormal Shadowing Model
  • Millimeter Wave Pathloss Model (New)
  • Pathloss Matrix Model
  • Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Ricean Fading Model
  • Two-ray Pathloss Model

Physical (PHY) Layer

  • 802.11p PHY Model
  • 802.11a/g PHY Model
  • 802.11b PHY Model
  • 802.11n PHY Model
  • 802.11ac PHY Model
  • 802.11ax PHY Model
  • Abstract PHY Model
  • Antenna Models
  • Bit Error Rate-based (BER) Reception Model
  • Bluetooth PHY Model (New)
  • Radio Energy Models
  • SNR-based Reception Model

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • 802.11 MAC Protocol
  • 802.11p MAC Protocol
  • 802.11e MAC Protocol
  • 802.11n MAC Protocol
  • 802.11ac MAC Model
  • 802.11ax MAC Protocol
  • 802.11s MAC Protocol
  • Aloha MAC Protocol
  • Abstract Network Equation – Satellite (ANESAT) Model
  • Bluetooth Classic MAC Protocol (New)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy MAC Protocol (New)
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) MAC Protocol
  • Generic MAC Protocol
  • Microwave Links
  • Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) MAC Protocol
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) MAC Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
  • Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)
  • Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Protocol
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
  • Fisheye State Routing Protocol
  • Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP)
  • Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP)
  • Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) Protocol
  • Location-Aided Routing (LAR) Protocol
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol – INRIA (OLSR-INRIA)
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2)
  • Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) Protocol
  • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

Application Layer

  • Bluetooth Advertiser Application Model (New)
  • Bluetooth Application Model (New)

Multicast Routing

  • On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP)

Mobility

  • File-based Mobility Model
  • Group Node Placement and Mobility Models
  • Random Waypoint Mobility Model

Terrain

  • Cartesian Terrain Format
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Terrain Format
  • Digital Terrain Elevation (DTED) Terrain Format
  • ESRI Shapefile Terrain Format
  • Urban Terrain Data Format

Miscellaneous

  • Battery Models
  • Weather Pattern Model

Underwater Communications Networks Library

The Underwater Communications Networks (UCN) Model Library can be incorporated into QualNet, EXata, and NDT, adding support for underwater acoustic and optical communications. The UCN Model will enable analysis of underwater network resiliency and self-healing performance, and provide communications visualization and communications system simulations. It provides high fidelity simulation of underwater acoustic and Free-Space Optical (FSO) communications.

Propagation models:

BELLHOP Acoustic Propagation Model: BELLHOP is a beam tracing model for predicting acoustic pressure fields in ocean environments. It allows for variations in the Sound Speed Profile (SSP) which refract the beam away from the straight line path. Reflection of the ray from the ocean surface and seabed are also calculated. It also optionally includes the geometric spreading and Thorp absorption processes. Since the beam tracing is quite slow to run, the properties of the environment are calculated prior torunningthe simulation in EXata. The values obtained from beam tracing are loaded into the simulation to providepathloss, arrival delay, and multi-path interference values.

Thorp Acoustic Pathloss Model: – Sound losses in the ocean are due to both spreading and absorption, both are modeled in UCN. In deep water, the spreading will be spherical, in shallow water the spreading will be cylindrical. In both cases, the loss will be in an inverse power of the distance between source and receiver. Absorption is due to effects of molecules dissolved in the water, this is frequency dependent, it results in an energy loss that is an exponential function of distance. The Thorp model of absorption includes terms for the most important modes of acoustic absorption and is valid for a range of frequencies between about 100 Hz and 50kHz.

Beer-Lambert Optical Pathloss Model: Light traveling through seawater is both scattered and absorbed. The coefficient of absorption and scattering are wavelength dependent and are also a strong function of the minerals dissolved in the water and particulate matter floating in it. These parameters are often referred to as the Intrinsic Optical Parameters (IOPs) of the medium.

Physical Layer Models:

The Acoustic PHY model is based upon the Abstract PHY model. The Abstract PHY model is described in Wireless Model Library.

There are many sources of sound in the undersea environment. In the frequency range used for acoustic communications, the dominant sources of noise are wind and shipping. Other ambient noise sources include turbulence, rain, and thermal noise. Anthropogenic sources also include communications devices, sonar, and explosions dues to seismic exploration. Marine life, most notably whales and shrimp, can also contribute to noise. When a signal is being received at an underwater communications node, the receiver will also pick up the ambient noise. This noise, combined with signals from other transmitters, and the inter-symbol interference, reduces the receiver’s ability to correctly discern the received signal.

The Optical PHY model is based upon the Abstract PHY model, which is described in Wireless Model Library. The Abstract PHY model is extended to include geometric factors of beam transmission and reception, an Optical Noise model, and a receiver model that supports Non-Return to Zero On-Off Keyed (NRZ-OOK) encoding scheme. The Optical PHY model uses a combination of an antenna pattern along with some geometric terms to determine the strength of the received signal. The antenna model supports the orientation of the platform that the transmitter or receivers are mounted on along with the mounting angle of the receiver relative to the pointing direction of the platform.

The Optical Noise model includes sources of noise from scatted sunlight and internal receiver noise. The sun is a powerful source of light, some light from the sun reaches the receiver due to scattering in the water. The single scattering model is used to approximate the sunlight entering the receiver, light is scattered out of the beam but not back into it. The light scattered into the receiver depends on the pointing direction of the receiver, the depth, and the IOPs.

Wargaming/Operational Analysis for Space Bundle

The Wargaming/Operational Analysis for Space Bundle includes the following model libraries:

Developer Library

The Developer Library includes a very long list of standard communications protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

MAC Layer

  • 802.3 LAN/Ethernet
  • Abstract Link MAC
  • Abstract Satellite Model
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Logical Link Control (LLC) Protocol

Network Layer

  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Fixed Communications Model
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  • Internet Protocol – Dual IP
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
  • IPv6 Autoconfiguration Model
  • Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Bellman-Ford Routing Protocol
  • Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng)
  • Routing Information Protocol/Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP/RIPv2)
  • Static and Default Routes

Multicast Routing

  • Static Multicast Routes

Queues and Schedulers

  • First-In First-Out (FIFO) Queue
  • Random Early Detection (RED) Queue
  • Random Early Detection with In/Out (RIO) Queue
  • Round Robin Scheduler
  • Self-Clocked Fair Queueing (SCFQ) Scheduler
  • Strict Priority Scheduler
  • Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Scheduler
  • Weighted RED (WRED) Queue
  • Weighted Round Robin (WRR) Scheduler

Transport Layer

  • Abstract Transmission Control Protocol (Abstract TCP)
  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Application Layer

  • Background Traffic Model
  • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Traffic Generator
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol/Generic (FTP/Generic)
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Lookup Traffic Generator
  • Multicast Constant Bit Rate (MCBR) Traffic Generator
  • Super Application Traffic Generator
  • Telecommunications Network (TELNET)
  • Traffic Generator (Traffic-Gen)
  • Trace File-based Traffic Generator (Traffic-Trace)
  • Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Traffic Generator

Multi-Layer

  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Vendor Interfaces

  • AGI System Toolkit (STK) Interface

Miscellaneous

  • Faults
  • File-based Node Placement Model
  • Grid Node Placement Model
  • Random Node Placement Model
  • Uniform Node Placement Model

Multimedia & Enterprise Library

The Multimedia and Enterprise Library covers an array of protocol and equipment elements.

The library supports:

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • Detailed Switch Model
  • Switched Ethernet
  • Virtual LAN (VLAN)

Network Protocols

  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Model
  • Layer 3 Switch Mode
  • Mobile IPv4

Unicast Routing

  • Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGPv4)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  • Open Shortest Path First version 2 (OSPFv2) Routing Protocol
  • Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3) Routing Protocol

Multicast Routing

  • Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
  • Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF)
  • Protocol Independent Multicast Protocol: Dense Mode (PIM-DM) and Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
  • Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Router Configuration

  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Policy-based Routing Protocol (PBR)
  • Route Map
  • Route Redistribution
  • Router Access List
  • Router Model

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Quality of Service Extensions to OSPF (QOSPF)

Multimedia Applications

  • H323 and H225 Protocols
  • Real-time Transfer Protocols
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Federation Interfaces Library

The Federation Interfaces Library can be incorporated into QualNet and EXata models, adding support for multi-simulator integration.

Multiple simulators can be used to simulate different aspects of the same scenario. The results of such a co-operative simulation can be more realistic and meaningful than those obtained by using any single simulator. The simulators interoperate with each other via data sharing to achieve a consistent representation of the simulation environment. Several standards, such as Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA), have been developed to facilitate data sharing among simulators.

High Level Architecture

High Level Architecture (HLA) is a specification that enables two or more software programs (usually simulation software) to interoperate. The software programs communicate with each other through a Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) module, which implements the HLA interface specification.

Distributed Interactive Simulation

Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) is an IEEE standard for interfacing multiple simulation tools into a single, real-time simulation. The transport of information between simulators is performed using UDP and broadcast and/or multicast IP. Although superseded by HLA and IEEE 1516, DIS still remains popular for its simplicity of operation and the ease of creating a DIS interface. In HLA terminology, the collection of communicating simulations is called a federation and each simulation is called a federate. The object and interaction classes used in the federation are defined in a module called Federation Object Model (FOM). Information is exchanged between simulations using this FOM.

Socket Interface

Communication between a SCALABLE application and the external program is implemented over a TCP socket, with the SCALABLE application acting as the server and the external program as the client. Several types of messages can be sent between the two processes.

Wireless Library

The standard Wireless Library includes many typical wireless protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

Propagation

  • Airplane Pathloss Model (New)
  • Constant Shadowing Model
  • Fast Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Free-space Pathloss Model
  • Inter-channel Interference Model
  • Irregular Terrain Model (ITM)
  • Lognormal Shadowing Model
  • Millimeter Wave Pathloss Model (New)
  • Pathloss Matrix Model
  • Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Ricean Fading Model
  • Two-ray Pathloss Model

Physical (PHY) Layer

  • 802.11p PHY Model
  • 802.11a/g PHY Model
  • 802.11b PHY Model
  • 802.11n PHY Model
  • 802.11ac PHY Model
  • 802.11ax PHY Model
  • Abstract PHY Model
  • Antenna Models
  • Bit Error Rate-based (BER) Reception Model
  • Bluetooth PHY Model (New)
  • Radio Energy Models
  • SNR-based Reception Model

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • 802.11 MAC Protocol
  • 802.11p MAC Protocol
  • 802.11e MAC Protocol
  • 802.11n MAC Protocol
  • 802.11ac MAC Model
  • 802.11ax MAC Protocol
  • 802.11s MAC Protocol
  • Aloha MAC Protocol
  • Abstract Network Equation – Satellite (ANESAT) Model
  • Bluetooth Classic MAC Protocol (New)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy MAC Protocol (New)
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) MAC Protocol
  • Generic MAC Protocol
  • Microwave Links
  • Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) MAC Protocol
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) MAC Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
  • Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)
  • Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Protocol
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
  • Fisheye State Routing Protocol
  • Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP)
  • Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP)
  • Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) Protocol
  • Location-Aided Routing (LAR) Protocol
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol – INRIA (OLSR-INRIA)
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2)
  • Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) Protocol
  • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

Application Layer

  • Bluetooth Advertiser Application Model (New)
  • Bluetooth Application Model (New)

Multicast Routing

  • On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP)

Mobility

  • File-based Mobility Model
  • Group Node Placement and Mobility Models
  • Random Waypoint Mobility Model

Terrain

  • Cartesian Terrain Format
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Terrain Format
  • Digital Terrain Elevation (DTED) Terrain Format
  • ESRI Shapefile Terrain Format
  • Urban Terrain Data Format

Miscellaneous

  • Battery Models
  • Weather Pattern Model

Wargaming/Operational Analysis for Cyber Bundle

The Wargaming/Operational Analysis for Cyber Bundle includes the following model libraries:

Developer Library

The Developer Library includes a very long list of standard communications protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

MAC Layer

  • 802.3 LAN/Ethernet
  • Abstract Link MAC
  • Abstract Satellite Model
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Logical Link Control (LLC) Protocol

Network Layer

  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Fixed Communications Model
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  • Internet Protocol – Dual IP
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
  • IPv6 Autoconfiguration Model
  • Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Bellman-Ford Routing Protocol
  • Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng)
  • Routing Information Protocol/Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP/RIPv2)
  • Static and Default Routes

Multicast Routing

  • Static Multicast Routes

Queues and Schedulers

  • First-In First-Out (FIFO) Queue
  • Random Early Detection (RED) Queue
  • Random Early Detection with In/Out (RIO) Queue
  • Round Robin Scheduler
  • Self-Clocked Fair Queueing (SCFQ) Scheduler
  • Strict Priority Scheduler
  • Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Scheduler
  • Weighted RED (WRED) Queue
  • Weighted Round Robin (WRR) Scheduler

Transport Layer

  • Abstract Transmission Control Protocol (Abstract TCP)
  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Application Layer

  • Background Traffic Model
  • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Traffic Generator
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol/Generic (FTP/Generic)
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Lookup Traffic Generator
  • Multicast Constant Bit Rate (MCBR) Traffic Generator
  • Super Application Traffic Generator
  • Telecommunications Network (TELNET)
  • Traffic Generator (Traffic-Gen)
  • Trace File-based Traffic Generator (Traffic-Trace)
  • Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Traffic Generator

Multi-Layer

  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Vendor Interfaces

  • AGI System Toolkit (STK) Interface

Miscellaneous

  • Faults
  • File-based Node Placement Model
  • Grid Node Placement Model
  • Random Node Placement Model
  • Uniform Node Placement Model

Multimedia & Enterprise Library

The Multimedia and Enterprise Library covers an array of protocol and equipment elements.

The library supports:

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • Detailed Switch Model
  • Switched Ethernet
  • Virtual LAN (VLAN)

Network Protocols

  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Model
  • Layer 3 Switch Mode
  • Mobile IPv4

Unicast Routing

  • Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGPv4)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  • Open Shortest Path First version 2 (OSPFv2) Routing Protocol
  • Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3) Routing Protocol

Multicast Routing

  • Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
  • Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF)
  • Protocol Independent Multicast Protocol: Dense Mode (PIM-DM) and Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
  • Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Router Configuration

  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Policy-based Routing Protocol (PBR)
  • Route Map
  • Route Redistribution
  • Router Access List
  • Router Model

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Quality of Service Extensions to OSPF (QOSPF)

Multimedia Applications

  • H323 and H225 Protocols
  • Real-time Transfer Protocols
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Wireless Library

The standard Wireless Library includes many typical wireless protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

Propagation

  • Airplane Pathloss Model (New)
  • Constant Shadowing Model
  • Fast Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Free-space Pathloss Model
  • Inter-channel Interference Model
  • Irregular Terrain Model (ITM)
  • Lognormal Shadowing Model
  • Millimeter Wave Pathloss Model (New)
  • Pathloss Matrix Model
  • Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Ricean Fading Model
  • Two-ray Pathloss Model

Physical (PHY) Layer

  • 802.11p PHY Model
  • 802.11a/g PHY Model
  • 802.11b PHY Model
  • 802.11n PHY Model
  • 802.11ac PHY Model
  • 802.11ax PHY Model
  • Abstract PHY Model
  • Antenna Models
  • Bit Error Rate-based (BER) Reception Model
  • Bluetooth PHY Model (New)
  • Radio Energy Models
  • SNR-based Reception Model

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • 802.11 MAC Protocol
  • 802.11p MAC Protocol
  • 802.11e MAC Protocol
  • 802.11n MAC Protocol
  • 802.11ac MAC Model
  • 802.11ax MAC Protocol
  • 802.11s MAC Protocol
  • Aloha MAC Protocol
  • Abstract Network Equation – Satellite (ANESAT) Model
  • Bluetooth Classic MAC Protocol (New)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy MAC Protocol (New)
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) MAC Protocol
  • Generic MAC Protocol
  • Microwave Links
  • Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) MAC Protocol
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) MAC Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
  • Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)
  • Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Protocol
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
  • Fisheye State Routing Protocol
  • Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP)
  • Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP)
  • Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) Protocol
  • Location-Aided Routing (LAR) Protocol
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol – INRIA (OLSR-INRIA)
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2)
  • Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) Protocol
  • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

Application Layer

  • Bluetooth Advertiser Application Model (New)
  • Bluetooth Application Model (New)

Multicast Routing

  • On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP)

Mobility

  • File-based Mobility Model
  • Group Node Placement and Mobility Models
  • Random Waypoint Mobility Model

Terrain

  • Cartesian Terrain Format
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Terrain Format
  • Digital Terrain Elevation (DTED) Terrain Format
  • ESRI Shapefile Terrain Format
  • Urban Terrain Data Format

Miscellaneous

  • Battery Models
  • Weather Pattern Model

Federation Interfaces Library

The Federation Interfaces Library can be incorporated into QualNet and EXata models, adding support for multi-simulator integration.

Multiple simulators can be used to simulate different aspects of the same scenario. The results of such a co-operative simulation can be more realistic and meaningful than those obtained by using any single simulator. The simulators interoperate with each other via data sharing to achieve a consistent representation of the simulation environment. Several standards, such as Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA), have been developed to facilitate data sharing among simulators.

High Level Architecture

High Level Architecture (HLA) is a specification that enables two or more software programs (usually simulation software) to interoperate. The software programs communicate with each other through a Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) module, which implements the HLA interface specification.

Distributed Interactive Simulation

Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) is an IEEE standard for interfacing multiple simulation tools into a single, real-time simulation. The transport of information between simulators is performed using UDP and broadcast and/or multicast IP. Although superseded by HLA and IEEE 1516, DIS still remains popular for its simplicity of operation and the ease of creating a DIS interface. In HLA terminology, the collection of communicating simulations is called a federation and each simulation is called a federate. The object and interaction classes used in the federation are defined in a module called Federation Object Model (FOM). Information is exchanged between simulations using this FOM.

Socket Interface

Communication between a SCALABLE application and the external program is implemented over a TCP socket, with the SCALABLE application acting as the server and the external program as the client. Several types of messages can be sent between the two processes.

Wargaming/Operational Analysis for All Domains Bundle

The Wargaming/Operational Analysis for All Domains Bundle includes the following model libraries:

Developer Library

The Developer Library includes a very long list of standard communications protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

MAC Layer

  • 802.3 LAN/Ethernet
  • Abstract Link MAC
  • Abstract Satellite Model
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Logical Link Control (LLC) Protocol

Network Layer

  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • Fixed Communications Model
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6)
  • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  • Internet Protocol – Dual IP
  • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
  • IPv6 Autoconfiguration Model
  • Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Bellman-Ford Routing Protocol
  • Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng)
  • Routing Information Protocol/Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIP/RIPv2)
  • Static and Default Routes

Multicast Routing

  • Static Multicast Routes

Queues and Schedulers

  • First-In First-Out (FIFO) Queue
  • Random Early Detection (RED) Queue
  • Random Early Detection with In/Out (RIO) Queue
  • Round Robin Scheduler
  • Self-Clocked Fair Queueing (SCFQ) Scheduler
  • Strict Priority Scheduler
  • Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) Scheduler
  • Weighted RED (WRED) Queue
  • Weighted Round Robin (WRR) Scheduler

Transport Layer

  • Abstract Transmission Control Protocol (Abstract TCP)
  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Application Layer

  • Background Traffic Model
  • Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Traffic Generator
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • File Transfer Protocol/Generic (FTP/Generic)
  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Lookup Traffic Generator
  • Multicast Constant Bit Rate (MCBR) Traffic Generator
  • Super Application Traffic Generator
  • Telecommunications Network (TELNET)
  • Traffic Generator (Traffic-Gen)
  • Trace File-based Traffic Generator (Traffic-Trace)
  • Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Traffic Generator

Multi-Layer

  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Vendor Interfaces

  • AGI System Toolkit (STK) Interface

Miscellaneous

  • Faults
  • File-based Node Placement Model
  • Grid Node Placement Model
  • Random Node Placement Model
  • Uniform Node Placement Model

Multimedia & Enterprise Library

The Multimedia and Enterprise Library covers an array of protocol and equipment elements.

The library supports:

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • Detailed Switch Model
  • Switched Ethernet
  • Virtual LAN (VLAN)

Network Protocols

  • Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Model
  • Layer 3 Switch Mode
  • Mobile IPv4

Unicast Routing

  • Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGPv4)
  • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
  • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  • Open Shortest Path First version 2 (OSPFv2) Routing Protocol
  • Open Shortest Path First version 3 (OSPFv3) Routing Protocol

Multicast Routing

  • Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
  • Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF)
  • Protocol Independent Multicast Protocol: Dense Mode (PIM-DM) and Sparse Mode (PIM-SM)
  • Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Router Configuration

  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Policy-based Routing Protocol (PBR)
  • Route Map
  • Route Redistribution
  • Router Access List
  • Router Model

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  • Quality of Service Extensions to OSPF (QOSPF)

Multimedia Applications

  • H323 and H225 Protocols
  • Real-time Transfer Protocols
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Federation Interfaces Library

The Federation Interfaces Library can be incorporated into QualNet and EXata models, adding support for multi-simulator integration.

Multiple simulators can be used to simulate different aspects of the same scenario. The results of such a co-operative simulation can be more realistic and meaningful than those obtained by using any single simulator. The simulators interoperate with each other via data sharing to achieve a consistent representation of the simulation environment. Several standards, such as Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA), have been developed to facilitate data sharing among simulators.

High Level Architecture

High Level Architecture (HLA) is a specification that enables two or more software programs (usually simulation software) to interoperate. The software programs communicate with each other through a Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) module, which implements the HLA interface specification.

Distributed Interactive Simulation

Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) is an IEEE standard for interfacing multiple simulation tools into a single, real-time simulation. The transport of information between simulators is performed using UDP and broadcast and/or multicast IP. Although superseded by HLA and IEEE 1516, DIS still remains popular for its simplicity of operation and the ease of creating a DIS interface. In HLA terminology, the collection of communicating simulations is called a federation and each simulation is called a federate. The object and interaction classes used in the federation are defined in a module called Federation Object Model (FOM). Information is exchanged between simulations using this FOM.

Socket Interface

Communication between a SCALABLE application and the external program is implemented over a TCP socket, with the SCALABLE application acting as the server and the external program as the client. Several types of messages can be sent between the two processes.

Military Radios Library

The Military Radios Library includes models for:

  • Link 11
  • Link 16
  • Multi-Generator (MGEN) Toolset
  • Threaded Application
  • Compact Terrain Database
  • FCSC Radio Prototype

Details on this library are available upon request.

TIREM Propagation Library

The Terrain Integrated Rough Earth Model (TIREM) Library can be incorporated into QualNet and EXata virtual network models, adding support for terrain propagation effects.

TIREM is a propagation model which predicts the pathloss along the propagation path over irregular terrain at frequencies between 1 MHz and 40 GHz. Based on the geometry of the terrain profile, the appropriate propagation behavior is used to calculate the pathloss.

The core technology for TIREM was developed by Alion Science & Technology Corporation under contract to the US Defense Information Systems Agency. Alion licenses this core technology directly to customers for a fee. The SCALABLE TIREM Library is a connector and a “wrapper” for the Alion code providing tight integration into QualNet and EXata virtual network models. Customers who want TIREM functionality would purchase our TIREM Library and then contact Alion directly to purchase the core code. These two elements are then compiled together and linked into your QualNet or EXata simulation platform implementation.

Contact information for the TIREM core technology at Alion can be found HERE.

SCALABLE supports terrain data for both Cartesian and latitude/longitude coordinate systems. DTED and DEM, which both require latitude/ longitude coordinates, are the most commonly used.

Wireless Library

The standard Wireless Library includes many typical wireless protocols and mechanisms.

The library supports:

Propagation

  • Airplane Pathloss Model (New)
  • Constant Shadowing Model
  • Fast Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Free-space Pathloss Model
  • Inter-channel Interference Model
  • Irregular Terrain Model (ITM)
  • Lognormal Shadowing Model
  • Millimeter Wave Pathloss Model (New)
  • Pathloss Matrix Model
  • Rayleigh Fading Model
  • Ricean Fading Model
  • Two-ray Pathloss Model

Physical (PHY) Layer

  • 802.11p PHY Model
  • 802.11a/g PHY Model
  • 802.11b PHY Model
  • 802.11n PHY Model
  • 802.11ac PHY Model
  • 802.11ax PHY Model
  • Abstract PHY Model
  • Antenna Models
  • Bit Error Rate-based (BER) Reception Model
  • Bluetooth PHY Model (New)
  • Radio Energy Models
  • SNR-based Reception Model

Media Access Control (MAC) Layer

  • 802.11 MAC Protocol
  • 802.11p MAC Protocol
  • 802.11e MAC Protocol
  • 802.11n MAC Protocol
  • 802.11ac MAC Model
  • 802.11ax MAC Protocol
  • 802.11s MAC Protocol
  • Aloha MAC Protocol
  • Abstract Network Equation – Satellite (ANESAT) Model
  • Bluetooth Classic MAC Protocol (New)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy MAC Protocol (New)
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) MAC Protocol
  • Generic MAC Protocol
  • Microwave Links
  • Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (MACA) MAC Protocol
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) MAC Protocol

Unicast Routing

  • Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol
  • Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP)
  • Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing Protocol
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol
  • Fisheye State Routing Protocol
  • Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP)
  • Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP)
  • Landmark Ad Hoc Routing (LANMAR) Protocol
  • Location-Aided Routing (LAR) Protocol
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol – INRIA (OLSR-INRIA)
  • Optimized Link State Routing Protocol version 2 (OLSRv2)
  • Source Tree Adaptive Routing (STAR) Protocol
  • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

Application Layer

  • Bluetooth Advertiser Application Model (New)
  • Bluetooth Application Model (New)

Multicast Routing

  • On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP)

Mobility

  • File-based Mobility Model
  • Group Node Placement and Mobility Models
  • Random Waypoint Mobility Model

Terrain

  • Cartesian Terrain Format
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Terrain Format
  • Digital Terrain Elevation (DTED) Terrain Format
  • ESRI Shapefile Terrain Format
  • Urban Terrain Data Format

Miscellaneous

  • Battery Models
  • Weather Pattern Model

Underwater Communications Networks Library

The Underwater Communications Networks (UCN) Model Library can be incorporated into QualNet, EXata, and NDT, adding support for underwater acoustic and optical communications. The UCN Model will enable analysis of underwater network resiliency and self-healing performance, and provide communications visualization and communications system simulations. It provides high fidelity simulation of underwater acoustic and Free-Space Optical (FSO) communications.

Propagation models:

BELLHOP Acoustic Propagation Model: BELLHOP is a beam tracing model for predicting acoustic pressure fields in ocean environments. It allows for variations in the Sound Speed Profile (SSP) which refract the beam away from the straight line path. Reflection of the ray from the ocean surface and seabed are also calculated. It also optionally includes the geometric spreading and Thorp absorption processes. Since the beam tracing is quite slow to run, the properties of the environment are calculated prior torunningthe simulation in EXata. The values obtained from beam tracing are loaded into the simulation to providepathloss, arrival delay, and multi-path interference values.

Thorp Acoustic Pathloss Model: – Sound losses in the ocean are due to both spreading and absorption, both are modeled in UCN. In deep water, the spreading will be spherical, in shallow water the spreading will be cylindrical. In both cases, the loss will be in an inverse power of the distance between source and receiver. Absorption is due to effects of molecules dissolved in the water, this is frequency dependent, it results in an energy loss that is an exponential function of distance. The Thorp model of absorption includes terms for the most important modes of acoustic absorption and is valid for a range of frequencies between about 100 Hz and 50kHz.

Beer-Lambert Optical Pathloss Model: Light traveling through seawater is both scattered and absorbed. The coefficient of absorption and scattering are wavelength dependent and are also a strong function of the minerals dissolved in the water and particulate matter floating in it. These parameters are often referred to as the Intrinsic Optical Parameters (IOPs) of the medium.

Physical Layer Models:

The Acoustic PHY model is based upon the Abstract PHY model. The Abstract PHY model is described in Wireless Model Library.

There are many sources of sound in the undersea environment. In the frequency range used for acoustic communications, the dominant sources of noise are wind and shipping. Other ambient noise sources include turbulence, rain, and thermal noise. Anthropogenic sources also include communications devices, sonar, and explosions dues to seismic exploration. Marine life, most notably whales and shrimp, can also contribute to noise. When a signal is being received at an underwater communications node, the receiver will also pick up the ambient noise. This noise, combined with signals from other transmitters, and the inter-symbol interference, reduces the receiver’s ability to correctly discern the received signal.

The Optical PHY model is based upon the Abstract PHY model, which is described in Wireless Model Library. The Abstract PHY model is extended to include geometric factors of beam transmission and reception, an Optical Noise model, and a receiver model that supports Non-Return to Zero On-Off Keyed (NRZ-OOK) encoding scheme. The Optical PHY model uses a combination of an antenna pattern along with some geometric terms to determine the strength of the received signal. The antenna model supports the orientation of the platform that the transmitter or receivers are mounted on along with the mounting angle of the receiver relative to the pointing direction of the platform.

The Optical Noise model includes sources of noise from scatted sunlight and internal receiver noise. The sun is a powerful source of light, some light from the sun reaches the receiver due to scattering in the water. The single scattering model is used to approximate the sunlight entering the receiver, light is scattered out of the beam but not back into it. The light scattered into the receiver depends on the pointing direction of the receiver, the depth, and the IOPs.

Urban Propagation Library

The Urban Propagation Library can be incorporated into QualNet, EXata and NDT models.

The library supports propagation models for:

  • Automatic Model Selection
  • COST 231-Hata
  • COST 231-Walfish-Ikegami (COST-WI)
  • Okumura-Hata
  • Street Microcell
  • Street Mobile-to—Mobile
  • Suburban

When the Auto-select option for pathloss model is chosen, QualNet selects appropriate pathloss models based on the node location and urban terrain features. Different path-loss models are used according to their locations with respect to obstacles in the propagation path. QualNet allows selection of different model(s) for each source-destination pair and changes the models dynamically as the node positions change.

The COST 231-Hata propagation model is an empirical model that extends the Hata model to higher frequencies (1500-2000 MHz). It is a outdoor propagation model that is applicable to urban and suburban areas. The model is based on extensive measurement campaigns, and it is valid for flat terrain. The application of the COST-Hata-Model is restricted to situations where node’s antenna height is above roof-top levels adjacent to the node.

  • Environment is urban, suburban, or open area
  • Frequency is in the range 150-2000 MHz (recommended)
  • Antenna height of the base station is in the range 30-200 meters (recommended)
  • Antenna height of the mobile station is in the range 1-10 meters (recommended)
  • Distance between the base station and mobile station is in the range 1-20 km (recommended)

The COST 231-Hata propagating model is accurate within 1 dB for distances ranging from 1 to 20 km.

The model is capable of distinguishing between man-made structures and provides different formulation for small, medium, or large cities and urban, suburban, or open areas.

The COST 231-WI propagation model is a combination of the Walfisch and Ikegami models. It is an empirical model that is based on different contributions from members of the “COST 231 Subgroup on Propagation Models”. The model allows for improved path-loss estimation by consideration of more data to describe the character of the urban environment and it is applicable to metropolitan centers and urban areas. This model is statistical as no topographical data base of the buildings is considered.

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